The essential amino acid TRYPTOPHAN stands for the main difference in comparison to proMyalgan.
Structural formula of a tryptophan molecule.
Notice an aromatic indolic chain.
l-tryptophan is an amino acid. Amino acids are protein building bricks. Tryptophan is also raw material (precursor) for some hormones and biologically active substances. It is important for the development and functioning of many organs in the body.
Tryptophan has a stereometric polar molecule. It can be left-rotated "l" - levo/left - meaning it is levo-rotated molecule. And it can be "d" – dextro/right - meaning it is dextro-rotated molecule. The body uses "levo" stereometric tryptophan for serotonin and melatonin syntheses. d-Tryptophan, "dextro" stereometric tryptophan molecule is fare much less utilised in the body.
L-tryptophan is called an "essential" amino acid because the body can't make it. It must be acquired from food like a vitamin. After absorbing L-tryptophan from food, our body converts it to 5-HTP (5-hyrdoxytryptophan), and then to serotonin, melatonin, and niacin (nicotinic acid or vitamin B3).
Body requirement for tryptophan
The exact daily requirement for tryptophan is unknown. The body requirement for tryptophan decreases with age. It is estimated that adults need approximately 5 mg//1 kg of body mass. Woman of 60 kg of body mass needs approx. 300 mg and man of 80 kg of body mass needs approx. 400 mg tryptophan a day. Babies and small children need tryptophan more than adults approx. 10 – 15 mg/1 kg of body mass.
The average daily diet usually covers the basic metabolic needs for tryptophan. However, quite often does not ensures optimal levels of serotonin. It is because tryptophan is the least plentiful from all of 20 protein building amino acids. Our diet provides approximately 1 gram of tryptophan only and in the body is a constant fight competing for its limited quantity. Tryptophan supplementation, even in small quantities, ensures higher serotonin levels in central nervous system because it may help in more efficient competition for transport through blood-brain barrier. Tryptophan competes for this transport with other amino acids.
Our body uses tryptophan for building up various protein structures. People who have small or limited niacin (vitamin PP) quantities in diet the body can form this vitamin from niacin in the liver. However, 1 milligram of niacin from 60 mg of tryptophan, only. Why tryptophan amount in our diet might be insufficient. One could prove that serotonin deficiency could be responsible in part of poorly sleeping, low mood and overweight people.
Plentiful sources of tryptophan include bananas, dairy products, red meat, soybeans, shrimp, various fish, lamb, chicken and turkey. Any of these foods or combination of these foods will help to provide the recommended amount of tryptophan. A chicken breast provides one of the highest levels of tryptophan at 390 milligrams in a 4 ounce roasted breast, with a 4 ounce turkey breast coming in at 350 milligrams. The same size serving of baked or broiled yellowfin tuna has 380 milligrams, while 1 cup of cooked soybeans has 370 milligrams.
Tryptofan, serotonina, melatonina
Tryptophan is essential amino acid for serotonin and melatonin production in the brain. The intermediate stage is formation of 5-HTP (5 hydroxytryptophan) compound that has identical effects as tryptophan however could cause/increase adverse reactions if would be taken (instead of tryptophan) together with antidepressant medicines that are commonly used in fibromyalgia syndrome.
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Serotonin is made from the essential amino acid tryptophan. Serotonin is a chemical nerve cells produce. It sends signals between your nerve cells. Serotonin is found mostly in the digestive system, although it’s also in blood platelets and throughout the central nervous system.
Serotonin impacts every part of your body, from your emotions to your motor skills. Serotonin is considered a natural mood stabilizer. It’s the chemical that helps with sleeping, eating, and digesting. Serotonin also helps:
- reduce depression
- regulate anxiety
- heal wounds
- stimulate nausea
- maintain bone health
Here’s how serotonin acts in various functions across your body:
Bowel movements: Serotonin is found primarily in the body's stomach and intestines. It helps control your bowel movements and function.
Mood: Serotonin in the brain is thought to regulate anxiety, happiness, and mood. Low levels of the chemical have been associated with depression, and increased serotonin levels brought on by medication are thought to decrease arousal.
Nausea: Serotonin is part of the reason why you become nauseated. Production of serotonin rises to push out noxious or upsetting food more quickly in diarrhea. The chemical also increases in the blood, which stimulates the part of the brain that controls nausea.
Sleep: This chemical is responsible for stimulating the parts of the brain that control sleep and waking. Whether you sleep or wake depends on what area is stimulated and which serotonin receptor is used.
Blood clotting: Blood platelets release serotonin to help heal wounds. The serotonin causes tiny arteries to narrow, helping form blood clots./p>
Bone health: Serotonin plays a role in bone health. Significantly high levels of serotonin in the bones can lead to osteoporosis, which makes the bones weaker.
Sexual function: Low levels of serotonin are associated with increased libido, while increased serotonin levels are associated with reduced libido.
Serotonin affects every part of your body. It's responsible for many of the important functions that get us through the day. If your levels aren’t in balance, it can affect your mental, physical, and emotional well-being. Sometimes, a serotonin imbalance can mean something more serious. It's important to pay attention to your body and talk with your doctor about any concerns.
The conditionally essential amino acid TAURINE stands for the main difference in comparison to Myalgan.
Structural formula of a taurine molecule
notice sulfone and amine groups
Taurne was first isolated from ox bile in 1827 by German scientists Friedrich Tiedemann and Leopold Gmelin. Taurine is named after the Latin taurus, which means bull or ox. The isolation of taurine did not have any importance until 70-ties of 20 century, when scientist discovered that it is essential nutrient for cats. Taurine defficiency or lack in cat's food caused blindness and serious problmes with heart and circulatory system.
Taurine is unusual among biological molecules in being a sulphonic acid, while the vast majority of biologically occurring acids contain the more weakly acidic carboxyl group. While taurine is sometimes called an amino acid, and indeed is an acid containing an amino group, it is not an amino acid in the usual biochemical meaning of the term, which refers to compounds containing both an amino and a carboxylic group.
How much taurine do we need?
Taurine is conditionally essential amino acid and in human body can be synthesized in small quantities from cysteine.
It is estimated that daily requirement for taurine is approximately 60 mg. The daily taurine supplementation is completely safe up to 500 mg and more. Prevention of taurine deficiency is important because it plays key role in so many processes in human body and cannot be substituted by any other substance. Vegan and vegetarian diet may foster taurine deficiency.
Natural rich sources of taurine include: oysters, meat, fish, whey, some leguminous plants like soy, lentil and pea. Taurine is also present in mother milk. Taurine concentration in meat varies between 30 – 200 mg/100 grams. The highest taurine level was found in turkey meat and the lowest in meat producing chicken (broiler). Very high taurine level has been found in seafood molluscs like mussels, octopuses and squids in particular 300 – 800 mg/100g and fish (50 – 200 mg/100g).
Benefits of taurine
Taurine shows high biological activity and it is essential for the normal human body function. Taurine has many fundamental biological roles, such as:
- conjugation of bile acids
- cell membrane stabilization
- modulation of calcium signalling
- is essential for cardiovascular function
- is essential for development and function of skeletal muscle
- is essential for the retina
- is essential for the central nervous system
Effect on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism
Ackerman & Heinsen (1935) found taurine was a potent hypoglycemic agent. This finding has been in further studies confirmed. Lampson (1983) reported taurine capable of enhancing the effect of
Effect on Central Nerve System
Taurine is one of the major inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters in the brain, alongside GABA* and Glycine, and while the latter two amino acids have their own signalling systems (GABAergic and Glycinergic) taurine is thought to act vicariously as a neuromodulator of these two systems. Taurine is known to bind to both GABAA and GABAB receptors. Taurine crosses the blood–brain barrier and has been implicated in a wide array of physiological phenomena including inhibitory neurotransmission, long-term potentiation in the striatum/hippocampus, protection against glutamate excitotoxicity and prevention of epileptic seizures.
Taurine also promotes cognitive function, improves learning and memory retention. It has been largely confirmed on animal model but also on people within last 20 years.
What is safe dose of taurine?
Taurine is an amino acid and it is recognized a very safe. The maximum safe dose of taurine as a supplement is the dose at which there is a high level of confidence that an individual will not experience any side effects. This dose assumes that the supplement will be taken on a long-term daily basis. The observed safety limit was deemed to be 3 grams of taurine as a supplement, taken in addition to normal dietary intake. However, there have been several studies that have investigated the effects of higher doses, which are largely well tolerated.